El Índigo es un colorante originalmente extraído de las variedades de las plantas del añil y es conocido desde la antigüedad por su capacidad para teñir los tejidos de un color de azul profundo. Objetos egipcios sugieren que el añil fue empleado ya en 1600 aC y se han encontrado restos de él en África, India, Indonesia y China.
An English translation below if you click ” Sigue leyendo”
El nombre índigo proviene del latín indicum, que significa “producto de la India”, lugar de su comercio con el Impero Romano, aunque la planta se cultiva en muchas áreas del mundo, incluyendo Asia , Java , Japón y América Central . Por otro lado, el nombre añil deriva del árabe “al- nil”, que significa azul.
El tinte se puede extraer de varias plantas, pero históricamente la planta de añil fue la más utilizada, ya que fue la más ampliamente disponible. Pertenece a la familia de las leguminosas y se han identificado más de trescientas especies. La Indigofera tintoria es la más común, un arbusto de entre un metro y dos de altura, de hojas pequeñas y flores rosas y violetas. En la antigüedad , el añil era un bien muy preciado porque las hojas de la planta contienen sólo una pequeña cantidad de colorante (aproximadamente 4.2 % ). Por lo tanto, se requiere un gran número de plantas para producir una cantidad significativa de colorante. Las plantaciones de añil se extendieron por muchas partes del mundo para asegurar un suministro controlado.
El químico alemán Adolf von Baeyer obtuvo la primera síntesis de índigo artificial en 1880, y la perfeccionó en 1883 tras una larga investigación sobre el benceno, lo que le valió un premio Nobel en 1905, a pesar de que su método no producía un índigo suficientemente barato como para reemplazar al natural. Finalmente, el suizo Karl Heumann, en 1890, logró la síntesis adecuada para uso industrial. Uno de los nombres que recibió por entonces el índigo artificial fue azul de Prusia. Hoy en día, el índigo se produce sintéticamente a escala industrial.
La peculiaridad de este tinte es que es superficial y solo penetra parcialmente en las fibras. Si miráramos con aumento un hilo teñido de índigo podríamos observar que las capas internas permanecen sin color. Debido a ello y a su baja fijación, el color se va desvaneciendo para dar el característico aspecto desgastado que podemos ver en nuestros pantalones vaqueros.
Muchas prendas de tu armario están teñidas con índigo y son de tejido denim, pero una vez más, eso será una futura publicación.
Indigo is a dyestuff originally extracted from the varieties of the indigo and is known throughout the ancient world for its ability to color fabrics a deep blue. Egyptian artifacts suggest that indigo was employed as early as 1600 B.C. and it has been found in Africa, India, Indonesia, and China.
Indigo name comes from the Roman term” indicum”, which means a product of India, origen of the first trading with the Roman Empire. This is somewhat of a misnomer since the plant is grown in many areas of the world including Asia, Java, Japan and Central America. Another ancient term for the dye is nil from which the Arabic term for blue, al-nil, is derived.
The dye can be extracted from several plants, but historically the indigo plant was the most used , as it was the most widely available. It belongs to the legume family and identified over three hundred species. The “Indigofera tintoria” is the most common, a shrub of between one meter and two meters high , small leaves with rose and violet flowers. In ancient times , indigo was a precious good because the leaves of the plant contain only a small amount of dye (approximately 4.2 %). Therefore, a large number of plants was required to produce a significant amount of dyestuff. Indigo plantations were founded across the world to ensure a controlled supply.
The German chemist Adolf von Baeyer obtained the first artificial synthesis of indigo in 1880 and refined in 1883 after a lengthy investigation into benzene, which earned him a Nobel Prize in 1905 , although his method did not produce an enough cheap indigo to replace the natural dye. Finally, the Swiss Karl Heumann, in 1890 , achieved the synthesis suitable for industrial use. One of the names of this artificial indigo was then the Prussian blue. Today , indigo is produced synthetically in a industrial scale.
The peculiarity of this dye is that it is superficial and it penetrates only partially in the fibers . If we looked increased a indigo dyed yarn it can be seen that the inner layers remain uncolored. The dye also fades to give a characteristic used look to our jeans.
Many clothes in your closet are dyed with indigo and they are made in denim fabrics, but again, it will be for future publication.
Imagenes: sehkelly, instructables, ldbabrooklyn, handeyemagazine, necesitodetodos
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